Data Models

Some Important Advantages Of Entity Relationship Model

Entity Relationship Model is a sensitive portrayal of data in an association, It sees the whole system as an accumulation of elements identified with each other. It is utilized to portray the components of a system and their relationships. It was presented by Peter Chen in 1976.


Entity Relationship Model


Advantages of Entity-Relationship Model :

Some important advantages of E-R display are as per the following:

Entity Relationship Model is a sensitive portrayal of data in an association, It sees the whole system as an accumulation of elements identified with each other. It is utilized to portray the components of a system and their relationships. It was presented by Peter Chen in 1976.

1. Calculated Simplicity:

Entity Relationship Model speaks to the idea of a database alongside its substances and relationships in a simple way. It turns out to be considerably simpler to make and deal with the mind-boggling database plans by utilizing E-R model.

2. Visual Representation:

E-R show gives a visual portrayal of data and the relationships among data. It empowers database fashioners, software engineers and ends clients to comprehend database easily.

3. Compelling Communication Tool:

The database planner can utilize Entity-Relationship Model to get distinctive perspectives of data as observed by software engineers, supervisors and end clients and so forth. E-R show functions as a successful communication device to incorporate these views.4. Coordinated with Relational Database Model: Entity-Relationship Model is all around incorporated into the social database display. This reconciliation influences social database to plan an extremely organized process.

Components of E-R Model:

Diverse components of an Entity Relationship Model are as follows:


An entity is a man, place, thing or occasion for which data is gathered and kept up. For example, a library system may contain data about various substances like BOOK and MEMBER. A school system may incorporate substances like STUDENT, TEACHER, and CLASS and so on.

A few examples of elements are as follows:






An entity is spoken to by a rectangle. The name of the entity is composed of the rectangle. The entity is utilized as a part of three distinct implications that are as follows:

Entity Type:

An arrangement of substances with same qualities is called entity compose. All elements in an entity compose share normal attributes. It is otherwise called an entity class. For example, STUDENT entity class is an arrangement of all understudies. Thus, BOOK entity compose is an accumulation of all books and so forth.

Entity Instance:

An individual from an entity class is otherwise called an entity on occasion. It is otherwise called entity event. Every entity occurrence of an entity compose has its incentive for each occasion. For example, an understudy Abdullah of STUDENT entity write is an entity case.

Entity Set:

An arrangement of all elements of a specific entity write in the database at a given purpose of time is called an entity set. For example, an entity set Student may comprise all understudies in the college. Another entity set Teacher may comprise of all instructors in the college and so forth. A similar name is generally utilized for both entities to write an entity set. For example, BOOK alludes to both an entity write and the present arrangement of all books in the database.


The qualities of an entity are called characteristics or properties. For example, Name, Address, Class, and Email of an understudy are his qualities. All examples of a specific entity class have a few qualities. For example, all understudies of STUDENT entity class have the qualities of Name, Address, Class, and Email.

Characteristic Domain:

A quality area is an arrangement of conceivable qualities for a property. All traits have 1 space. The areas may comprise a scope of qualities or some discrete qualities. For example, the space for Grade Point Average (GPA) can be from 0 to 4. Thus, the area for Gender trait can be either Male or Female.

The relationship of an area with a trait guarantees the uprightness of Database. The area is typically characterized by the type of data compose and some extra requirements like range limitation. For example, if the data kind of field is a whole number, it can store just whole number qualities


A relationship is a legitimate association between various elements. The substances that take an interest in a relationship are called members. The relationship might be between various elements or between an entity and itself.

A relationship is built up based on the connection among these substances. For example, a relationship exists between a STUDENT and TEACHER on the grounds that the instructor educates the understudies.

A relationship is called add up to if all elements of that entity set might be the member in the relationship. A relationship is called fractional if a few substances of that entity set might be the member in the relationship.

Assume a relationship SUPP PART exists amongst Supplier and Part. The relationship adds up to if each part is provided by a provider. The relationship is incomplete if certain parts are accessible without a provider.

E-R Diagram:

ER chart is a graphical portrayal of Entity Relationship Model utilizing an arrangement of standard images.

Distinctive images sued in E-R outline are as follows:

Types of Attributes:

  • D diverse sorts of qualities are spoken to in E-R chart as follows:

Simple Attribute:

A characteristic that can’t be subdivided into a little part is known as the straightforward trait. It is additionally called nuclear trait. For example, a man can have just a single sexual orientation and one date of the earth.

Composite Attribute:

A quality that can be isolated into littler segments is called composite characteristic. Or then again the example, Address is an example composite trait. It can be subdivided into Street, City, Country. So also, a Phone Number can be subdivided into Area Code and Number.

Single-Valued Attribute:

A trait that may contain single esteem is called single-esteemed quality. For example, Age of a man is single-esteemed characteristic Center is likewise a solitary esteemed trait.

Multi-Valued Attribute:

A characteristic that may contain at least two qualities is called multi-esteemed trait. For example, a man can have at least two advanced educations. So also, a worker may have numerous Skills. The multi-esteemed trait is spoken to by da twofold line oval. Put away Attributes: A property that is put away in a database is called put away quality. A large portion of the properties is put away qualities. These are put away and got to from databases.

Determined Attributes:

A quality that isn’t put away in the database, however, got from another esteem is called determined characteristic. The other esteem can be put away in the database or got in some other way. For example, Roll No, Name and Date of Birth of an understudy can be put away in the database. The Age of an understudy can be gotten from Date of Berth. A determined trait is shown by utilizing an oval with a dashed line.


The identifier is a characteristic that distinguishes an entity occurrence among different examples in the entity class. For example, there might be numerous occurrences of STUDENT entity class. In any case, every understudy is recognized by his Roll Now or Registration No. Likewise, a worker in EMPLOYEE entity class is recognized by his Employee LD and so forth. These properties are known as identifiers.

An identifier can be one of a kind or non-extraordinary. A novel identifier may recognize just a single entity example. A no-one of a kind identifier may distinguish an arrangement of occurrences. For example, Employee LD is an exceptional identifier. It distinguishes a solitary representative. However, Department is a non-one of a kind identifier. It recognizes all representatives who work in a specific office.

An identifier that comprises one quality is called straightforward identifier. For example, the identifier for STUDENT entity compose is Student_ID. An identifier that comprises of the composite trait is called composite identifier. For example, Order ID identifier may comprise of Order Now and Date.


Distinctive kinds of elements are spoken to in E-R outline as takes after:

Feeble Entities and Strong Entities:

An entity that can exist just if another entity exists is known similar to every entity. It implies that powerless substances rely on the presence of another entity. Assume we need to store the data of an understudy in the wake of doling out a class to him. It implies that the data can’t be put away if The LASS entity does not exist. To store the record of the understudy, we first need to make an entity that speaks to a class. Here, STUDENT is a frail entity since it relies on the CLASS entity.

The entity on which the powerless entity depends is called proprietor or recognizing the proprietor. A powerless entity is spoken to by a twofold line square.

An entity that can exist without contingent on the presence of another entity is known as a solid entity. In the past example, CLASS is a solid entity. A solid entity is likewise called the parent, proprietor or overwhelming entity. A powerless entity is likewise called a youngster, needy or subordinate entity.

In the above figure, CHILD is a frail entity and PERSON is its recognizing proprietor. The relationship of these elements is spoken to by the twofold lined precious stone. It is called distinguishing relationship.

Acquainted Entities Associative entity is a kind of entity that partners the examples of one or numerous entity writes with each other. The characteristics of affiliated speak to the relationship between examples.

The accompanying figure demonstrates that a researcher gets a honor for his exploration. The entity AWARD has the autonomous importance to the client.

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